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PENYAMPAIAN BANTUAN TEKNIS  HUKUM (JUDICIAL ASSISTANCE) DALAM PERKARA PERDATA LINTAS YURISDIKSI NEGARA

Oleh: ASEP NURSOBAH (Hakim Yustisial Kepaniteraan MA)

 

A.     PENDAHULUAN

Bantuan teknis  hukum (judicial assistance) lintas yurisdiksi negara dalam masalah perdata dapat  berbentuk surat rogatori (rogatory letter, leter of request) dan bantuan penyampaian dokumen pengadilan. Surat rogatori adalah surat permintaan dari atau kepada negara lain untuk mendapatkan bantuan teknis hukum di bidang keperdataan mengenai, namun tidak terbatas, pada bantuan mencari atau mengidentifikasi, mencari atau mengidentifikasi aset-aset atau properti, memperoleh keterangan saksi, memperoleh dokumen atau alat bukti lainnya dan pelaksanaan proses keperdataan. Bantuan penyampaian  dokumen adalah bantuan untuk menyampaikan dokumen namun tidak terbatas  pada surat gugatan perdata, surat panggilan persidangan, surat panggilan pemeriksaan saksi, surat pernyataan upaya hukum, surat pemeriksaan berkas, salinan putusan/penetapan pengadilan, surat-surat, akta-akta dan dokumen keperdataan lainnya.

Penanganan bantuan teknis hukum lintas yurisdiksi, baik yang menyangkut surat rogatori maupun permohonan bantuan penyampaian dokumen,  diatur dalam 3 (tiga) Konvensi Internasional, yaitu:

1.      Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for foreign Public Documents (1961)           

2.      Hague Service Convention (1965); dan

3.      Hague Evidence Convention (1970)

Berdasarkan konvensi tersebut, penyampaian permohonan bantuan hukum (legal assistance) dapat dilakukan langsung antar pengadilan lintas yurisdiksi negara, tanpa melalui protokol diplomatik.   Akan tetapi, Indonesia bukan negara pihak pada tiga konvensi tersebut, sehingga pengadilan di Indonesia tidak bisa secara langsung meminta bantuan ke pengadilan di negara lain untuk memanggil/memberitahukan dokumen pengadilan terhadap pihak yang berada di yurisdiksi pengadilan negara tersebut.

Hingga saat ini belum ada peraturan perundang-undangan mengenai kerjasama antar negara tentang bantuan timbal balik  dalam masalah perdata yang mengatur asas, prinsip, prosedur, persyaratan permintaan bantuan, dan proses hukum acaranya.  Penyampaian dokumen hukum yang bersifat lintas jurisdiksi  negara bagi pengadilan di Indonesia dilakukan berdasarkan Konvensi Wina 1963 tentang Hubungan Konsuler (Consular Relations and  Optional Protocols ( 24 April 1963)), yang telah diratifikasi oleh Indonesia melalu Undang-Undang No. 1 tahun 1982.

Dalam Pasal 5 huruf (j) Konvensi Wina 1963,  diatur bahwa:

“ Consular Function consist in :

 (j)  transmitting judicial and extra judicial documents or executing letters rogatory or commissions to take evidence for the courts of the sending State in accordance with international agreement in force or, in the absence of such international agreements, in any other manner compatible with the laws and regulations of the receiving State”

(Tugas-tugas Konsuler terdiri dari:  (j) meneruskan dokumen-dokumen pengadilan dan luar pengadilan atau melaksanakan surat-surat pertanyaan atau kuasa untuk mengambil keterangan bagi pengadilan Negara Pengirim sesuai dengan perjanjian internasional yang berlaku atau, bila perjanjian internasional demikian tidak ada, dengan suatu cara lain yang sesuai dengan hukum dan peraturan”)

Indonesia adalah negara hukum yang demokratis yang dalam penyelenggaraan hubungan luar negeri serta pelaksanaan politik luar negeri didasarkan pada peraturan perundang-undangan, hukum dan kebiasaan internasional.  Dalam kondisi belum ada peraturan  perundang-undangan yang mengatur penyampaian bantuan teknis hukum lintas yurisdiksi negara dalam bidang perdata diperlukan  pedoman penanganan surat rogatori dan bantuan penyampaian dokumen peradilan yang disepakati oleh Mahkamah Agung dan Kementerian Luar Negeri. Berdasarkan hal tersebut telah dilakukan  penandatanganan nota kesepahaman (MoU) antara Kementerian Luar Negeri dan Mahkamah Agung tentang hal tersebut yang dilakukan  pada tanggal 19 Februari 2013, oleh Panitera Mahkamah Agung dan Dirjen Hukum dan Perjanjian Internasional Kemenlu RI.

 


 

ARTIKEL SELENGKAPNYA KLIK DI SINI


[1] Hakim Yustisial pada Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Agung /Koordinator Data dan Informasi Kepaniteraan MA

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Hingga sementara ini belum ada ketentuan perundang-undan gan tentang kerjasama antar negara tentang pemberian timbal balik dalam persoalan perdata yang sesuaikan asas, prinsip, prosedur, kriteria keinginan bantuan, dan sistem hukum acaranya. Penyampaian dokumen hukum yang berbentuk lintas jurisdiksi negara bagi pengadilan di Indonesia dijalankan berdasarkan Konvensi Wina 1963 tentang Hubungan Konsuler (Consular Relations and Optional Protocols ( 24 April 1963)), yang udah diratifikasi oleh Indonesia melalu Undang-Undang No. 1 tahun 1982. Harga dan Review Produk
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